|Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces.
Glycerin is a trihydroxyalcohol with localized osmotic diuretic and laxative effects. Glycerin elevates the blood plasma osmolality thereby extracting water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. This agent also prevents water reabsorption in the proximal tubule in the kidney leading to an increase in water and sodium excretion and a reduction in blood volume. Administered rectally, glycerin exerts a hyperosmotic laxative effect by attracting water into the rectum, thereby relieving constipation. In addition, glycerin is used as a solvent, humectant and vehicle in various pharmaceutical preparationsMethods of Manufacturing-
Production from allyl chloride- This method became available once the high-temperature chlorination of propene to allyl chloride could be controlled properly. The allyl chloride produced is oxidized with hypochlorite to dichlorohydrin, which is converted without isolation to epichlorohydrin by ring closure with calcium or sodium hydroxide. Hydrolysis to glycerol is carried out with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. Epichlorohydrin is hydrolyzed to glycerol at 80 - 200 °C with a 10 - 15% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate at atmospheric or overpressure. The residence time in one or a series of several closed, continuously operating reactors amounts to several minutes or several hours depending on the plant concerned. The yield of dilute (10 - 25%) glycerol solution is > 98%. The solution contains 5 - 10% sodium chloride and less than 2% of other impurities. This aqueous glycerol solution containing sodium chloride is evaporated in a multistage evaporation plant under vacuum to a glycerol concentration of > 75%; precipitated sodium chloride is separated at the same time. The glycerol solution is then distilled under high vacuum (about 0.5 - 1.0 kPa), co-distilled water is separated by fractional condensation. Residual inorganic salts and higher oligomers of glycerol remaining after the evaporation must be worked up further or discarded. The glycerol, practically free of water, is treated further to remove colored impurities and odorous material; this can be performed, for example, with activated carbon.Uses-
Glycerol has a ubiquitous use pattern and can be found in industrial, professional and consumer products. Glycerol is used as a constituent in numerous products and as an intermediate in industrial applications for the manufacture of products such as soaps/detergents and glycerol esters. It is found in consumer products such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, tobacco, food and drinks and is present in numerous other products such as paints, resins and paper. For example, it is used as a down hole lubricant in oil and gas fields and as a wetting agent in pesticide formulations. There is no single use which dominates the use pattern.